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Tippayawat P, Phromviyo N, Boueroy P, Chompoosor A. (2016) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in aloe vera plant extract prepared by a hydrothermal method and their synergistic antibacterial activity. PeerJ Preprints4:e1912v1https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.1912v1
Background: There is worldwide interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by various chemical reactions for use in applications exploiting their antibacterial activity, even though these processes exhibit a broad range of toxicity in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. To avoid the chemical toxicity, biosynthesis (green synthesis) of metal nanoparticles is proposed as a cost-effective and environmental friendly alternative. Aloe vera leaf extract is a medicinal agent with multiple properties including an antibacterial effect. Moreover the constituents of aloe vera leaves include lignin, hemicellulose, and pectins which can be used in the reduction of silver ions to produce as AgNPs@aloe vera (AgNPs@AV) with antibacterial activity. Methods: AgNPs were prepared by an eco-friendly hydrothermal method using an aloe vera plant extract solution as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs@AV were characterized using XRD and SEM. Additionally, an agar well diffusion method was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. MIC and MBC were used to correlate the concentration of AgNPs@AV its bactericidal effect. SEM was used to investigate bacterial inactivation. Then the toxicity with human cells was investigated using an MTT assay. Results: The synthesized AgNPs were crystalline with sizes of 70.70 ± 22-192.02 ± 53 nm as revealed using XRD and SEM. The sizes of AgNPs can be varied through alteration of times and temperatures used in their synthesis. These AgNPs were investigated for potential use as an antibacterial agent to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. Their antibacterial activity was tested on S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. The results showed that AgNPs had a high antibacterial which depended on their synthesis conditions, particularly when processed at 100 oC for 6 h and 200 oC for 12 h. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was determined using human PBMCs revealing no obvious cytotoxicity. These results indicated that AgNPs@AV can be effectively utilized in pharmaceutical, biotechnological and biomedical applications. Discussion: Aloe vera extract was processed using a green and facile method. This was a hydrothermal method to reduce silver nitrate to AgNPs@AV. Varying the hydrothermal temperature provided the fine spherical shaped nanoparticles. The size of the nanomaterial was affected by its thermal preparation. The particle size of AgNPs could be tuned by varying both time and temperature. A process using a pure AG phase could go to completion in 6h at 200 oC, whereas reactions at lower temperatures required longer times. Moreover, the antibacterial effect of this hybrid nanomaterial was sufficient that it could be used to inhibit pathogenic bacteria since silver release was dependent upon its particle size. The high activity of the largest AgNPs might have resulted from a high concentration of aloe vera compounds incorporated into the AgNPs during hydrothermal synthesis.
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