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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Kirsty E Graham conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Catherine Hobaiter conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper, inter-observer reliability.

Richard W Byrne conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

School of Psychology & Neuroscience Ethics Committee, approved for 3 years from 20/11/2013.

Project title: Gestural communication in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus)

Researcher's name: Kirsty Graham

Supervisor's name: Richard Byrne

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Ministere de Recherche Scientifique et Technologie, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Permis de recherche No MIN.ESURE/SG-RST/002/2014

Permis de recherche No 002/MIN.RST/SG/180/002/2015

Funding

University of St Andrews, 600th Anniversary Scholarship. Wenner-Gren Foundations, Dissertation Fieldwork Grant (Grant number 8950). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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