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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Kathelijne Koops conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Takeshi Furuichi contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Chie Hashimoto contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Carel P. van Schaik reviewed drafts of the paper.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Permission to carry out research at in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve was granted and approved through permits from the National Forestry Authority (NFA) and the Ugandan National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST). Permission to carry out research at Wamba in the Luo Scientific Reserve was granted and approved through permits from the Ministry of Higher Education, University and Scientific Research and the Centre of Research of Ecology and Forestry (CREF).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The research in this article did not generate any raw data.

Funding

Research was supported by grants from Lucie Burgers Foundation for Comparative Behaviour Research (the Netherlands), Homerton College (Cambridge) and McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research (Cambridge) grants to K. Koops and by MEXT (#20002001, #24000001) and JSPS-U04-PWS grants to T. Matsuzawa. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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