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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Sarah J Davis conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Gillian L Vale conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Steven J Schapiro reviewed drafts of the paper, provided logistical support.

Susan P Lambeth reviewed drafts of the paper, provided logistical support.

Andrew Whiten conceived and designed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Ethical approval was granted by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC approval number 0894-RN01) and the University of St Andrews’ Animal Welfare and Ethics Committee.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

This is a preprint for an abstract accepted for a poster presentation at the upcoming 'Chimpanzees in Context' conference. Raw data will not be submitted at this stage

Funding

This project was funded by the John Templeton Foundation (Grant ID: 40128). Support for the chimpanzee colony came from NIH/NCRR U42-RR015090. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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