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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Deus Mjungu conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Michael L Wilson conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Steffen Foerster analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Anne E Pusey analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The access of the long term data by the third party is still under consideration.

Funding

Funding support for this work came from the Jane Goodall Insitute as part of the long-term studies of Chimpanzees at Gombe National Park. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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