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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests

Author Contributions

José P Andrade conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Céline Madeira conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Miguel Correia conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jorge Palma conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

All authors have been certified by the governmental entity (DGAV) to conduct experiments in animals.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The Insitute of Conservation and Nature (ICNF) from the Portuguese government has issued a permit to conduct the field studies (permit #32/2016/CAPT)

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data is too large to be made available online.

Funding

The study was supported by the scientific projects INAQUA and HIPPOSAFE (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, ref. PTDC/MAR/122616/2010). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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