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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Mimi Arandjelovic conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Colleen R Stephens performed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Maureen S McCarthy conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Paula Dieguez conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ammie K Kalan performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Nuria Maldonado performed the experiments.

Christophe Boesch conceived and designed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Hjalmar S Kuehl conceived and designed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The data collection methods for this study were strictly non-invasive and were approved by the Ethical Board of the Max Planck Society. As such, the study was conducted in accordance with Germany’s laws and the rules and regulations governing animal research in the European Union. In every African country where field data were collected, all relevant permissions were first obtained from the country’s governmental institutions before starting data collection.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The following national wildlife authorities provided permissions for our research: Agence Nationale des Parcs Nationaux, Gabon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique (CENAREST), Gabon, Direction des Eaux, Forêts et Chasses, Senegal, Forestry Development Authority, Liberia, Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature, DR-Congo, Ministère de l’Economie Forestière, R-Congo, Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique et de l'Innovation, Cameroon, Ministère de l'Agriculture de l'Elevage et des Eaux et Forêts, Guinea, Instituto da Biodiversidade e das Áreas Protegidas (IBAP), Guinea-Bissau, Ministère de la Recherche Scientifique, DR-Congo, Ministère de le Recherche Scientifique et Technologique, R-Congo, Ministère des Eaux et Forêts, Côte d’Ivoire, Ministère des Forêts et de la Faune, Cameroon, Ministry of Education, Rwanda, Nigeria National Park Service, Nigeria, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology, Tanzania, Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, Tanzania, Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST), Uganda, Ugandan Wildlife Authority, Uganda

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The research in this article did not generate any raw data.

Funding

We would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme and the Zooniverse for co-funding, creating and supporting Chimp&See. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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