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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

James WA Murphy conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Robert H Richmond contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper, funding and Intellectual Guidance.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Department of Land and Natural Resources - Division of Aquatic Resources (collection permit for corals)

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Not applicable to this study. Raw data consists of enzyme activity values and will be submitted to reviewers as a separate file for review.


Support for this project was provided by the University of Hawaii Minorities Access to Research Careers (MARC) Program (NIH Grant 5T34GM007684-30 to Dr. Patricia Couvillon and Dr. Petra Lenz) and NOAA Grant NA09NOS4780178 (to Dr. Robert H Richmond). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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