This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
A variety of different fungicides is found simultaneously in surface waters, among which demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) are a major group. The joint toxicity of four DMIs from different chemical classes (Fenarimol, Prochloraz, Triadimefon and Pyrifenox) was investigated in the reproduction test with Daphnia magna, following an extended protocol according to ISO 10706. We assessed the toxicity of the DMI mixtures across different endpoints and effect levels and evaluated the predictability of their joint action using Concentration Addition (CA) and Independent Action (IA). The mixture reduced fecundity, delayed molting and caused characteristic malformations in offspring in a concentration-dependend manner which is possibly due to an anti-ecdysteroid action, as previously described for individual DMIs. However, also mixture-specific effects were observed: exposed daphnids reached sexual maturity already after the third juvenile molt, and thus significantly earlier than unexposed daphnids, which needed four juvenile molts to reach maturity. This effect is not caused by any of the DMIs alone. Additionally, the percentage of aborted broods was synergistically higher than expected by either CA or IA. IA underestimates the mixture toxicity for all parameters. The predictive quality of CA differed between life history responses, but was always within a factor of two to the observed toxicity. The parameter “fecundity reduction, counting only normally developed offspring” was the most sensitive endpoint, while the parameter “fecundity reduction, counting all living offspring” was slightly less sensitive. The mixture caused a 90% reduction in fecundity at individual concentrations that only provoke 7% effect or less, which calls for a mixture-specific toxicity assessment of DMI fungicides.
This is an author-produced pre-copy-editing version of the manuscript, that was recently accepted for publication in Aquatic Toxicology. Slight changes have been made in this version after the peer-reviewing process. This second PrePrint contains a new table, data on analytics and some changes in the text. Further changes resulting from the publishing process, such as editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms are not reflected in this document. The definitive version is available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. aquatox.2014.04.009
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