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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Marie-Andrée Giroux conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Delphine Ditlecadet performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Luc J Martin contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Richard B. Lanctot wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Nicolas Lecomte conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Capture techniques and immobilization procedures were approved by the Université de Moncton Animal Care Committee (permit # 14-05) and by Environment Canada (Scientific permit to capture and band migratory birds, #10872). Red phalarope collections in Alaska were done under federal and state permits issued to R. Lanctot.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Field research was approved by the Department of Environment – Government of Nunavut (permit # WL-2014-039) and the Canadian Wildlife Service (permits #NUN-SCI-14-04).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Data are all directly included in the manuscript (see Results and Figures)

Funding

The funding sources for this study were: Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (EnviroNorth scholarship to MAG, Discovery grants to NL and LM), Canadian Foundation for Innovation (grants to NL and LM), Polar Continental Shelf Project (in-kind support to NL), Canada Research Chair Program to NL, Government of Nunavut (in-kind support) The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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