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Supplemental Information

Theropod mapping

Data S1- Mapping of W.A.I.R. values across theropod and early avian phylogeny. Topology based on Dececchi and Larsson 2013.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-1

Extant avian nexus

Nexus file for the Modified flapping rate regression. Nodal dates form Jetz et al. 2012. Taxa and measurements from Askew et al. 2001 and Jackson 2009

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-2

Calculations

Spreadsheet for WAIR and leaping height calculations.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-3

Equation description and justifications

Explanation for equations used.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-4

Measurement data

Measurement data for non-avian and avian theropods used in this analysis.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-5

Humerus percentage of forelimb

Humerus percentage of forelimb calculation compared to bodysize in avian and non-avian theropods.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-6

Body width estimation

Furcula width for Deinonychosaurians and early avians used to calculate body width estimate.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-7

WAIR calculation using ALL flapping rate

WAIR values using flap rate from regression from Jackson 2009 all taxa.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-8

WAIR calculation using GF flapping rate

WAIR values using flap rate from regression of ground foraging birds from Jackson 2009.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-9

WAIR calculation using MOD flapping rate

WAIR values using flap rate from regression based on modified dataset adding galliform birds form Askew et al. 2001 and Jackson 2009.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-10

Flap running

Increased in velocity after 10 iterations for flap running analysis.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-11

modelling passerine bird take off

Take off calculations for passerine birds from Jackson 2009.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-12

Vertical jumping

Height gain due to flap based thrust for non-avian theropods and Archaeopteryx.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-13

HOrixontal jumping

Horizontal distance gain due to flap based thrust for non-avian theropods and Archaeopteryx.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-14

Leaping take off values using ALL

Body weight support values for ground based take off with a leaping speeds of 3.8, 4.1 and 5.1 m/s. using flap rate from regression from Jackson 2009 all taxa.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-15

Leaping take off values using GF

Body weight support values for ground based take off with a leaping speeds of 3.8, 4.1 and 5.1 m/s. using flap rate from regression of ground foraging birds from Jackson 2009.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-16

Leaping take off values using MOD

Body weight support values for ground based take off with a leaping speeds of 3.8, 4.1 and 5.1 m/s. using flap rate from regression based on modified dataset adding galliform birds form Askew et al. 2001 and Jackson 2009.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-17

WAIR and leaping takeoff based on previous models of Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Caudipteryx and Protoarchaeopteryx

WAIR and leaping takeoff values for models taken from the literature. Data for Archaeopteryx from Yalden 1984, Microraptor specimens from: Chatterjee and Templin 2007, Alexander et al. 2010 and Dyke et al. 2013. Caudipteryx and Protoarchaeopteryx from Nudds and Dyke 2009.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.1676v1/supp-18

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

T. Alexander Dececchi conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Hans CE Larsson contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Michael B Habib conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

We will be submitting the raw data with this manuscript. If accepted we will submit the data to Dryad as well to make sure it is available to those who seek it.

Funding

The authors received no funding for this work.


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