Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. Weighted means and proportions were used to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables. Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, were used to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main outcomes were short- (<6 hours) and long-sleep duration (≥9 hours). A total of 12,424 observations, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7), 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 hours (95% CI 7.4-8.0) on weekdays and 8.0 hours (95% CI 7.8-8.1) during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI 2.9%-6.3%) and 22.4% (95% CI 14.9%-32.1%), respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥6 to <9 hours), short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment. In this nationally representative sample, the sociodemographic profile of short-sleep contrasts the long-sleep. These scenarios in Peru, as depicted by sleeping duration, differ from patterns reported in other high-income settings and could serve as the basis to inform and to improve sleep habits in the population.