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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

John D Lloyd conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Chris C Rimmer conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Kent P McFarland conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Banding activities were conducted by permission of the USGS Bird Banding Lab, under a permit issued to CCR, and research activities in the Dominican Republic were approved by the Subsecretaria de Áreas Protegidas y Biodiversidad.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Banding activities were conducted by permission of the USGS Bird Banding Lab, under a permit issued to CCR, and research activities in the Dominican Republic were approved by the Subsecretaria de Áreas Protegidas y Biodiversidad.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

KNB Data Repository. doi:10.5063/F1CR5R81.

Funding

Funding for our work over the years was provided by multiple sources, including the Carolyn Foundation, MacArthur Foundation, The Nature Conservancy, Stewart Foundation, Thomas Marshall Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service International Program, and friends of both the Vermont Center for Ecostudies and Vermont Institute of Natural Science. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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