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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Michael Pittman conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Xing Xu conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jason R Ali analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rui Pei analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Waisum Ma prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jin Meng conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Shundong Bi conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

A fossil excavation permit (14-0620-JLT) was obtained from the Department of Land and Resources, Inner Mongolia, China. This permit allowed the authors to extract and study material from our field site.

Funding

The fieldwork was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (41128002; 41120124002) and the Hundred Talents Programs of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Study of IVPP V22529 was supported by the University of Hong Kong’s Faculty of Science. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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