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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Derek S Madden conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper, financed logistical travel.

Erinn Madden conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Sierra Madden conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Completed IACUC training, 2014, certificate #2957815. Approved for research through written proposal and permit awarded by: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama & La Suerte-Maderas Conservancy, Costa Rica.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Completed IACUC training, 2014, certificate #2957815. Approved for research through written proposal and permit awarded by: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama & La Suerte-Maderas Conservancy, Costa Rica.

Funding

Yosemite Community College District and the US Department of Education, STEM grant # PO31C110107 (B. Sanders & J. Abbot) supported this research. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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