Preprints (not yet peer-reviewed)

We often expect that investigations of the patterns, causes, and consequences of among-individual variation in a trait of interest will reveal how selective pressures or ecological conditions influence that trait. However, many endocrine traits, such as concentrations...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Evolutionary Studies"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3432v1

Background.The Onchidiidae family provides ideal species of marine invertebrates for the study of the evolution from seas to wetlands. However, different species of Onchidiidae have rarely been considered in comparative studies. Methods.A total of 40 samples were...

["Aquaculture, Fisheries and Fish Science","Evolutionary Studies","Marine Biology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3431v1

The Kaidu-Konqi River Basin was chosen as the study site in this paper in order to investigate suitable scales of natural and artificial oases with a specified water resource and water quantity planned by the local government. Combined with remote-sensing images...

["Agricultural Science","Natural Resource Management"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3430v1

We developed a metabarcoding method for biodiversity characterization of structurally complex natural marine hard-bottom communities. Novel primer sets for two different molecular markers: the “Leray fragment” of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, COI, and the...

["Biodiversity","Ecology","Marine Biology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3429v1
2 downloads
22 views

Currently the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) assigns individual taxonomy identifiers to each distinct influenza virus isolate submitted to GenBank. To support this practice, individual flu isolates must be manually added to the NCBI taxonomy...

["Bioinformatics","Computational Biology","Taxonomy","Virology","Science Policy"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3428v1
3 downloads
27 views

Background: Simulation-based medical education is more prevalent in undergraduate preclinical medical education and acts as a foundation for clinical learning in years three and four. Currently, there is a call to teach clinical application of basic science material...

["Science and Medical Education"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3427v1
5 downloads
48 views

Background. The c-mos proto-oncogene was one of the first proto-oncogenes to be cloned. Apart from its role in meiosis, many efforts have been made to illuminate the mechanisms by which c-mos acts as an oncogene. c-mos or its coding messenger RNA have been confirmed...

["Cell Biology","Oncology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3426v1
12 downloads
57 views

Urban forests can attract visitors by the function of well-being improvement, which can be evaluated by analyzing the big-data from the social networking services (SNS). In this study, 935 facial images of visitors to nine urban forest parks were screened and downloaded...

["Psychiatry and Psychology","Public Health","Biosphere Interactions","Forestry","Spatial and Geographic Information Science"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3424v1
3 downloads
33 views

Studies in plant phenology have provided some of the best evidence for large-scale responses to recent climate change. Over the last decade, more than thirty studies have used herbarium specimens to analyze changes in flowering phenology over time. In this review,...

["Plant Science","Climate Change Biology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3425v1
18 downloads
42 views

Trace contaminant removal is of contemporary concern in drinking water and wastewater treatment, given increasing evidence of potential toxicity of various heavy metals and metalloids in water at parts per billion (ppb) concentration levels. Currently, only high...

["Biochemistry","Bioengineering","Biotechnology","Aquatic and Marine Chemistry","Environmental Contamination and Remediation"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3423v1
25 downloads
75 views

Background. A wealth of data on the networks of ecological interactions present in the modern biota can be readily obtained, due to the ease of unlimited access to the living organisms that form these networks. In contrast, understanding of such interactions in...

["Evolutionary Studies","Paleontology","Plant Science"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3422v1
16 downloads
84 views

Outcomes research exists incorporating non-digital games in veterinary education; however, little research examines outcomes from digital applications. Bauman’s Layered-Learning Model was applied to investigate whether a digital matching game produced short-term...

["Veterinary Medicine","Science and Medical Education","Histology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3421v1
16 downloads
52 views

Effective approaches for assessing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are important to multiple scientific disciplines. Mitochondrial haplogroups characterize branch points in the phylogeny of mtDNA. Several tools exist for mitochondrial haplogroup classification....

["Genetics","Genomics"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.3420v1
78 downloads
487 views

The Drosophila melanogaster white-eyed w1118 line serves as a blank control, allowing genetic recombination of any gene of interest along with a readily recognizable marker. w1118 flies display behavioral susceptibility to environmental stimulation such as light....

["Animal Behavior","Computational Biology"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.2908v3
138 downloads
1,036 views

Today there are no grammar systems, which allow the creation of a fundamentally new word and concept. All existing grammar systems only work by referring to previously chosen terms, on the bases of which all definitions are created. Implementation of operation...

["Artificial Intelligence","Computational Linguistics","Natural Language and Speech"]
doi:10.7287/peerj.preprints.1576v3
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