PeerJ Computer Science:Cryptographyhttps://peerj.com/articles/index.atom?journal=cs&subject=9400Cryptography articles published in PeerJ Computer ScienceA secure cross-domain interaction scheme for blockchain-based intelligent transportation systemshttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-16782023-11-152023-11-15Haiping SiWeixia LiQingyi WangHaohao CaoFernando BacaoChangxia Sun
In the intelligent transportation system (ITS), secure and efficient data communication among vehicles, road testing equipment, computing nodes, and transportation agencies is important for building a smart city-integrated transportation system. However, the traditional centralized processing approach may face threats in terms of data leakage and trust. The use of distributed, tamper-proof blockchain technology can improve the decentralized storage and security of data in the ITS network. However, the cross-trust domain devices, terminals, and transportation agencies in the heterogeneous blockchain network of the ITS still face great challenges in trusted data communication and interoperability. In this article, we propose a heterogeneous cross-chain interaction mechanism based on relay nodes and identity encryption to solve the problem of data cross-domain interaction between devices and agencies in the ITS. First, we propose the ITS cross-chain communication framework and improve the cross-chain interaction model. The relay nodes are interconnected through libP2P to form a relay node chain, which is used for cross-chain information verification and transmission. Secondly, we propose a relay node secure access scheme based on identity-based encryption to provide reliable identity authentication for relay nodes. Finally, we build a standard cross-chain communication protocol and cross-chain transaction lifecycle for this mechanism. We use Hyperledger Fabric and FISCO BCOS blockchain to design and implement this solution, and verify the feasibility of this cross-chain interaction mechanism. The experimental results show that the mechanism can achieve a stable data cross-chain read throughput of 2,000 transactions per second, which can meet the requirements of secure and efficient cross-chain communication and interaction among heterogeneous blockchains in the ITS, and has high application value.
In the intelligent transportation system (ITS), secure and efficient data communication among vehicles, road testing equipment, computing nodes, and transportation agencies is important for building a smart city-integrated transportation system. However, the traditional centralized processing approach may face threats in terms of data leakage and trust. The use of distributed, tamper-proof blockchain technology can improve the decentralized storage and security of data in the ITS network. However, the cross-trust domain devices, terminals, and transportation agencies in the heterogeneous blockchain network of the ITS still face great challenges in trusted data communication and interoperability. In this article, we propose a heterogeneous cross-chain interaction mechanism based on relay nodes and identity encryption to solve the problem of data cross-domain interaction between devices and agencies in the ITS. First, we propose the ITS cross-chain communication framework and improve the cross-chain interaction model. The relay nodes are interconnected through libP2P to form a relay node chain, which is used for cross-chain information verification and transmission. Secondly, we propose a relay node secure access scheme based on identity-based encryption to provide reliable identity authentication for relay nodes. Finally, we build a standard cross-chain communication protocol and cross-chain transaction lifecycle for this mechanism. We use Hyperledger Fabric and FISCO BCOS blockchain to design and implement this solution, and verify the feasibility of this cross-chain interaction mechanism. The experimental results show that the mechanism can achieve a stable data cross-chain read throughput of 2,000 transactions per second, which can meet the requirements of secure and efficient cross-chain communication and interaction among heterogeneous blockchains in the ITS, and has high application value.Enhanced payload volume in the least significant bits image steganography using hash functionhttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-16062023-11-132023-11-13Yazeed Yasin GhadiTamara AlShloulZahid Iqbal NezamiHamid AliMuhammad AsifMohamed Jaward Bah
The art of message masking is called steganography. Steganography keeps communication from being seen by any other person. In the domain of information concealment within images, numerous steganographic techniques exist. Digital photos stand out as prime candidates due to their widespread availability. This study seeks to develop a secure, high-capacity communication system that ensures private interaction while safeguarding information from the broader context. This study used the four least significant bits for steganography to hide the message in a secure way using a hash function. Before steganography, the message is encrypted using one of the encryption techniques: Caesar cipher or Vigenère cipher. By altering only the least significant bits (LSBs), the changes between the original and stego images remain invisible to the human eye. The proposed method excels in secret data capacity, featuring a high peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and low mean square error (MSE). This approach offers significant payload capacity and dual-layer security (encryption and steganography).
The art of message masking is called steganography. Steganography keeps communication from being seen by any other person. In the domain of information concealment within images, numerous steganographic techniques exist. Digital photos stand out as prime candidates due to their widespread availability. This study seeks to develop a secure, high-capacity communication system that ensures private interaction while safeguarding information from the broader context. This study used the four least significant bits for steganography to hide the message in a secure way using a hash function. Before steganography, the message is encrypted using one of the encryption techniques: Caesar cipher or Vigenère cipher. By altering only the least significant bits (LSBs), the changes between the original and stego images remain invisible to the human eye. The proposed method excels in secret data capacity, featuring a high peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and low mean square error (MSE). This approach offers significant payload capacity and dual-layer security (encryption and steganography).An electronic voting scheme based on homomorphic encryption and decentralizationhttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-16492023-10-182023-10-18Ke YuanPeng SangSuya ZhangXi ChenWei YangChunfu Jia
Compared with paper-based voting, electronic voting not only has advantages in storage and transmission, but also can solve the security problems that exist in traditional voting. However, in practice, most electronic voting faces the risk of voting failure due to malicious voting by voters or ballot tampering by attackers. To solve this problem, this article proposes an electronic voting scheme based on homomorphic encryption and decentralization, which uses the Paillier homomorphic encryption method to ensure that the voting results are not leaked until the election is over. In addition, the scheme applies signatures and two layers of encryption to the ballots. First, the ballot is homomorphically encrypted using the homomorphic public key; then, the voter uses the private key to sign the ballot; and finally, the ballot is encrypted using the public key of the counting center. By signing the ballots and encrypting them in two layers, the security of the ballots in the transmission process and the establishment of the decentralized scheme are guaranteed. The security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can guarantee the completeness, verifiability, anonymity, and uniqueness of the electronic voting scheme. The performance analysis shows that the computational efficiency of the proposed scheme is improved by about 66.7% compared with the Fan et al. scheme (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2019.10.016).
Compared with paper-based voting, electronic voting not only has advantages in storage and transmission, but also can solve the security problems that exist in traditional voting. However, in practice, most electronic voting faces the risk of voting failure due to malicious voting by voters or ballot tampering by attackers. To solve this problem, this article proposes an electronic voting scheme based on homomorphic encryption and decentralization, which uses the Paillier homomorphic encryption method to ensure that the voting results are not leaked until the election is over. In addition, the scheme applies signatures and two layers of encryption to the ballots. First, the ballot is homomorphically encrypted using the homomorphic public key; then, the voter uses the private key to sign the ballot; and finally, the ballot is encrypted using the public key of the counting center. By signing the ballots and encrypting them in two layers, the security of the ballots in the transmission process and the establishment of the decentralized scheme are guaranteed. The security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can guarantee the completeness, verifiability, anonymity, and uniqueness of the electronic voting scheme. The performance analysis shows that the computational efficiency of the proposed scheme is improved by about 66.7% compared with the Fan et al. scheme (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2019.10.016).Heart disease severity level identification system on Hyperledger consortium networkhttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-16262023-10-122023-10-12Sasikumar R.Karthikeyan P.
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) play a vital role in the healthcare domain for the patient survival system. They can include detailed information such as medical histories, medications, allergies, immunizations, vital signs, and more. It can help to reduce medical errors, improve patient safety, and increase efficiency in healthcare delivery. EHR approaches are proven to be an efficient and successful way of sharing patients’ personal health information. These kinds of highly sensitive information are vulnerable to privacy and security associated threats. As a result, new solutions must develop to meet the privacy and security concerns in health information systems. Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize the way electronic health records (EHRs) are stored, accessed, and utilized by healthcare providers. By utilizing a distributed ledger, blockchain technology can help ensure that data is immutable and secure from tampering. In this article, a Hyperledger consortium network has been developed for sharing health records with enhanced privacy and security. The attribute based access control (ABAC) mechanism is used for controlling access to electronic health records. The use of ABAC on the network provides EHRs with an extra layer of security and control, ensuring that only authorized users have access to sensitive data. By using attributes such as user identity, role, and health condition, it is possible to precisely control access to records on blockchain. Besides, a Gaussian naïve Bayes algorithm has been integrated with this consortium network for prediction of cardiovascular disease. The prediction of cardiovascular is difficult due to its correlated risk factors. This system is beneficial for both patients and physicians as it allows physicians to quickly identify high-risk patients and easily provide them with patient severity level using feature weight prediction algorithms. Dynamic emergency access control privileges are used for the emergency team and will be withdrawn once the emergency has been resolved, depending on the severity score. The system is implemented with the following medical datasets: the heart disease dataset, the Pima Indian diabetes dataset, the stroke prediction dataset, and the body fat prediction dataset. The above datasets are obtained from the Kaggle repository. This system evaluates system performance by simulating various operations using the Hyperledger Caliper benchmarking tool. The performance metrics such as latency, transaction rate, resource utilization, etc. are measured and compared with the benchmark.
Electronic Health Records (EHRs) play a vital role in the healthcare domain for the patient survival system. They can include detailed information such as medical histories, medications, allergies, immunizations, vital signs, and more. It can help to reduce medical errors, improve patient safety, and increase efficiency in healthcare delivery. EHR approaches are proven to be an efficient and successful way of sharing patients’ personal health information. These kinds of highly sensitive information are vulnerable to privacy and security associated threats. As a result, new solutions must develop to meet the privacy and security concerns in health information systems. Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize the way electronic health records (EHRs) are stored, accessed, and utilized by healthcare providers. By utilizing a distributed ledger, blockchain technology can help ensure that data is immutable and secure from tampering. In this article, a Hyperledger consortium network has been developed for sharing health records with enhanced privacy and security. The attribute based access control (ABAC) mechanism is used for controlling access to electronic health records. The use of ABAC on the network provides EHRs with an extra layer of security and control, ensuring that only authorized users have access to sensitive data. By using attributes such as user identity, role, and health condition, it is possible to precisely control access to records on blockchain. Besides, a Gaussian naïve Bayes algorithm has been integrated with this consortium network for prediction of cardiovascular disease. The prediction of cardiovascular is difficult due to its correlated risk factors. This system is beneficial for both patients and physicians as it allows physicians to quickly identify high-risk patients and easily provide them with patient severity level using feature weight prediction algorithms. Dynamic emergency access control privileges are used for the emergency team and will be withdrawn once the emergency has been resolved, depending on the severity score. The system is implemented with the following medical datasets: the heart disease dataset, the Pima Indian diabetes dataset, the stroke prediction dataset, and the body fat prediction dataset. The above datasets are obtained from the Kaggle repository. This system evaluates system performance by simulating various operations using the Hyperledger Caliper benchmarking tool. The performance metrics such as latency, transaction rate, resource utilization, etc. are measured and compared with the benchmark.Natural differential privacy—a perspective on protection guaranteeshttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-15762023-09-282023-09-28Micah AltmanAloni Cohen
We introduce “Natural” differential privacy (NDP)—which utilizes features of existing hardware architecture to implement differentially private computations. We show that NDP both guarantees strong bounds on privacy loss and constitutes a practical exception to no-free-lunch theorems on privacy. We describe how NDP can be efficiently implemented and how it aligns with recognized privacy principles and frameworks. We discuss the importance of formal protection guarantees and the relationship between formal and substantive protections.
We introduce “Natural” differential privacy (NDP)—which utilizes features of existing hardware architecture to implement differentially private computations. We show that NDP both guarantees strong bounds on privacy loss and constitutes a practical exception to no-free-lunch theorems on privacy. We describe how NDP can be efficiently implemented and how it aligns with recognized privacy principles and frameworks. We discuss the importance of formal protection guarantees and the relationship between formal and substantive protections.Hybrid post-quantum Transport Layer Security formal analysis in Maude-NPA and its parallel versionhttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-15562023-09-222023-09-22Duong Dinh TranCanh Minh DoSantiago EscobarKazuhiro Ogata
This article presents a security formal analysis of the hybrid post-quantum Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, a quantum-resistant version of the TLS protocol proposed by Amazon Web Services as a precaution in dealing with future attacks from quantum computers. In addition to a classical key exchange algorithm, the proposed protocol uses a post-quantum key encapsulation mechanism, which is believed invulnerable under quantum computers, so the protocol’s key negotiation is called the hybrid key exchange scheme. One of our assumptions about the intruder’s capabilities is that the intruder is able to break the security of the classical key exchange algorithm by utilizing the power of large quantum computers. For the formal analysis, we use Maude-NPA and a parallel version of Maude-NPA (called Par-Maude-NPA) to conduct experiments. The security properties under analysis are (1) the secrecy property of the shared secret key established between two honest principals with the classical key exchange algorithm, (2) a similar secrecy property but with the post-quantum key encapsulation mechanism, and (3) the authentication property. Given the time limit T = 1,722 h (72 days), Par-Maude-NPA found a counterexample of (1) at depth 12 in T, while Maude-NPA did not find it in T. At the same time T, Par-Maude-NPA did not find any counterexamples of (2) and (3) up to depths 12 and 18, respectively, and neither did Maude-NPA. Therefore, the protocol does not enjoy (1), while it enjoys (2) and (3) up to depths 12 and 18, respectively. Subsequently, the secrecy property of the master secret holds for the protocol up to depth 12.
This article presents a security formal analysis of the hybrid post-quantum Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, a quantum-resistant version of the TLS protocol proposed by Amazon Web Services as a precaution in dealing with future attacks from quantum computers. In addition to a classical key exchange algorithm, the proposed protocol uses a post-quantum key encapsulation mechanism, which is believed invulnerable under quantum computers, so the protocol’s key negotiation is called the hybrid key exchange scheme. One of our assumptions about the intruder’s capabilities is that the intruder is able to break the security of the classical key exchange algorithm by utilizing the power of large quantum computers. For the formal analysis, we use Maude-NPA and a parallel version of Maude-NPA (called Par-Maude-NPA) to conduct experiments. The security properties under analysis are (1) the secrecy property of the shared secret key established between two honest principals with the classical key exchange algorithm, (2) a similar secrecy property but with the post-quantum key encapsulation mechanism, and (3) the authentication property. Given the time limit T = 1,722 h (72 days), Par-Maude-NPA found a counterexample of (1) at depth 12 in T, while Maude-NPA did not find it in T. At the same time T, Par-Maude-NPA did not find any counterexamples of (2) and (3) up to depths 12 and 18, respectively, and neither did Maude-NPA. Therefore, the protocol does not enjoy (1), while it enjoys (2) and (3) up to depths 12 and 18, respectively. Subsequently, the secrecy property of the master secret holds for the protocol up to depth 12.Modelling and verification of post-quantum key encapsulation mechanisms using Maudehttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-15472023-09-192023-09-19Víctor GarcíaSantiago EscobarKazuhiro OgataSedat AkleylekAyoub Otmani
Communication and information technologies shape the world’s systems of today, and those systems shape our society. The security of those systems relies on mathematical problems that are hard to solve for classical computers, that is, the available current computers. Recent advances in quantum computing threaten the security of our systems and the communications we use. In order to face this threat, multiple solutions and protocols have been proposed in the Post-Quantum Cryptography project carried on by the National Institute of Standards and Technologies. The presented work focuses on defining a formal framework in Maude for the security analysis of different post-quantum key encapsulation mechanisms under assumptions given under the Dolev-Yao model. Through the use of our framework, we construct a symbolic model to represent the behaviour of each of the participants of the protocol in a network. We then conduct reachability analysis and find a man-in-the-middle attack in each of them and a design vulnerability in Bit Flipping Key Encapsulation. For both cases, we provide some insights on possible solutions. Then, we use the Maude Linear Temporal Logic model checker to extend the analysis of the symbolic system regarding security, liveness and fairness properties. Liveness and fairness properties hold while the security property does not due to the man-in-the-middle attack and the design vulnerability in Bit Flipping Key Encapsulation.
Communication and information technologies shape the world’s systems of today, and those systems shape our society. The security of those systems relies on mathematical problems that are hard to solve for classical computers, that is, the available current computers. Recent advances in quantum computing threaten the security of our systems and the communications we use. In order to face this threat, multiple solutions and protocols have been proposed in the Post-Quantum Cryptography project carried on by the National Institute of Standards and Technologies. The presented work focuses on defining a formal framework in Maude for the security analysis of different post-quantum key encapsulation mechanisms under assumptions given under the Dolev-Yao model. Through the use of our framework, we construct a symbolic model to represent the behaviour of each of the participants of the protocol in a network. We then conduct reachability analysis and find a man-in-the-middle attack in each of them and a design vulnerability in Bit Flipping Key Encapsulation. For both cases, we provide some insights on possible solutions. Then, we use the Maude Linear Temporal Logic model checker to extend the analysis of the symbolic system regarding security, liveness and fairness properties. Liveness and fairness properties hold while the security property does not due to the man-in-the-middle attack and the design vulnerability in Bit Flipping Key Encapsulation.A new hybrid method combining search and direct based construction ideas to generate all 4 × 4 involutory maximum distance separable (MDS) matrices over binary field extensionshttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-15772023-09-192023-09-19Gökhan TuncayFatma Büyüksaraçoğlu SakallıMeltem Kurt PehlivanoğluGülsüm Gözde YılmazgüçSedat AkleylekMuharrem Tolga Sakallı
This article presents a new hybrid method (combining search based methods and direct construction methods) to generate all
$4 \times 4$4×4
involutory maximum distance separable (MDS) matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^m}$F2m
. The proposed method reduces the search space complexity at the level of
$$\sqrt n $$
n, where n represents the number of all
$4 \times 4$4×4
invertible matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^m}$F2m
to be searched for. Hence, this enables us to generate all
$4 \times 4$4×4
involutory MDS matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^3}$F23
and
$\mathbf{F}_{2^4}$F24
. After applying global optimization technique that supports higher Exclusive-OR (XOR) gates (e.g., XOR3, XOR4) to the generated matrices, to the best of our knowledge, we generate the lightest involutory/non-involutory MDS matrices known over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^3}$F23
,
$\mathbf{F}_{2^4}$F24
and
$\mathbf{F}_{2^8}$F28
in terms of XOR count. In this context, we present new
$4 \times 4$4×4
involutory MDS matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^3}$F23
,
$\mathbf{F}_{2^4}$F24
and
$\mathbf{F}_{2^8}$F28
, which can be implemented by 13 XOR operations with depth 5, 25 XOR operations with depth 5 and 42 XOR operations with depth 4, respectively. Finally, we denote a new property of Hadamard matrix, i.e., (involutory and MDS) Hadamard matrix form is, in fact, a representative matrix form that can be used to generate a small subset of all
$2^k\times 2^k$2k×2k
involutory MDS matrices, where k > 1. For k = 1, Hadamard matrix form can be used to generate all involutory MDS matrices.
This article presents a new hybrid method (combining search based methods and direct construction methods) to generate all
$4 \times 4$4×4
involutory maximum distance separable (MDS) matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^m}$F2m
. The proposed method reduces the search space complexity at the level of
$$\sqrt n $$
n, where n represents the number of all
$4 \times 4$4×4
invertible matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^m}$F2m
to be searched for. Hence, this enables us to generate all
$4 \times 4$4×4
involutory MDS matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^3}$F23
and
$\mathbf{F}_{2^4}$F24
. After applying global optimization technique that supports higher Exclusive-OR (XOR) gates (e.g., XOR3, XOR4) to the generated matrices, to the best of our knowledge, we generate the lightest involutory/non-involutory MDS matrices known over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^3}$F23
,
$\mathbf{F}_{2^4}$F24
and
$\mathbf{F}_{2^8}$F28
in terms of XOR count. In this context, we present new
$4 \times 4$4×4
involutory MDS matrices over
$\mathbf{F}_{2^3}$F23
,
$\mathbf{F}_{2^4}$F24
and
$\mathbf{F}_{2^8}$F28
, which can be implemented by 13 XOR operations with depth 5, 25 XOR operations with depth 5 and 42 XOR operations with depth 4, respectively. Finally, we denote a new property of Hadamard matrix, i.e., (involutory and MDS) Hadamard matrix form is, in fact, a representative matrix form that can be used to generate a small subset of all
$2^k\times 2^k$2k×2k
involutory MDS matrices, where k > 1. For k = 1, Hadamard matrix form can be used to generate all involutory MDS matrices.A message recovery attack on multivariate polynomial trapdoor functionhttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-15212023-08-282023-08-28Rashid AliMuhammad Mubashar HussainShamsa KanwalFahima HajjejSaba Inam
Cybersecurity guarantees the exchange of information through a public channel in a secure way. That is the data must be protected from unauthorized parties and transmitted to the intended parties with confidentiality and integrity. In this work, we mount an attack on a cryptosystem based on multivariate polynomial trapdoor function over the field of rational numbers Q. The developers claim that the security of their proposed scheme depends on the fact that a polynomial system consisting of 2n (where n is a natural number) equations and 3n unknowns constructed by using quasigroup string transformations, has infinitely many solutions and finding exact solution is not possible. We explain that the proposed trapdoor function is vulnerable to a Gröbner basis attack. Selected polynomials in the corresponding Gröbner basis can be used to recover the plaintext against a given ciphertext without the knowledge of the secret key.
Cybersecurity guarantees the exchange of information through a public channel in a secure way. That is the data must be protected from unauthorized parties and transmitted to the intended parties with confidentiality and integrity. In this work, we mount an attack on a cryptosystem based on multivariate polynomial trapdoor function over the field of rational numbers Q. The developers claim that the security of their proposed scheme depends on the fact that a polynomial system consisting of 2n (where n is a natural number) equations and 3n unknowns constructed by using quasigroup string transformations, has infinitely many solutions and finding exact solution is not possible. We explain that the proposed trapdoor function is vulnerable to a Gröbner basis attack. Selected polynomials in the corresponding Gröbner basis can be used to recover the plaintext against a given ciphertext without the knowledge of the secret key.An agent-based secure privacy-preserving decentralized protocol for sharing and managing digital health passport information during criseshttps://peerj.com/articles/cs-14582023-07-182023-07-18Akram Y. Sarhan
The aim of this article is to identify a range of changes and challenges that present-day technologies often present to contemporary societies, particularly in the context of smart city logistics, especially during crises. For example, the long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as life losses, economic damages, and privacy and security violations, demonstrate the extent to which the existing designs and deployments of technological means are inadequate. The article proposes a privacy-preserving, decentralized, secure protocol to safeguard individual boundaries and supply governments and public health organizations with cost-effective information, particularly regarding vaccination. The contribution of this article is threefold: (i) conducting a systematic review of most of the privacy-preserving apps and their protocols created during pandemics, and we found that most apps pose security and privacy violations. (ii) Proposing an agent-based, decentralized private set intersection (PSI) protocol for securely sharing individual digital personal and health passport information. The proposed scheme is called secure mobile digital passport agent (SMDPA). (iii) Providing a simulation measurement of the proposed protocol to assess performance. The performance result proves that SMDPA is a practical solution and better than the proposed active data bundles using secure multi-party computation (ADB-SMC), as the average CPU load for SMDPA is approximately 775 milliseconds (ms) compared to about 900 ms for ADB-SMC.
The aim of this article is to identify a range of changes and challenges that present-day technologies often present to contemporary societies, particularly in the context of smart city logistics, especially during crises. For example, the long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as life losses, economic damages, and privacy and security violations, demonstrate the extent to which the existing designs and deployments of technological means are inadequate. The article proposes a privacy-preserving, decentralized, secure protocol to safeguard individual boundaries and supply governments and public health organizations with cost-effective information, particularly regarding vaccination. The contribution of this article is threefold: (i) conducting a systematic review of most of the privacy-preserving apps and their protocols created during pandemics, and we found that most apps pose security and privacy violations. (ii) Proposing an agent-based, decentralized private set intersection (PSI) protocol for securely sharing individual digital personal and health passport information. The proposed scheme is called secure mobile digital passport agent (SMDPA). (iii) Providing a simulation measurement of the proposed protocol to assess performance. The performance result proves that SMDPA is a practical solution and better than the proposed active data bundles using secure multi-party computation (ADB-SMC), as the average CPU load for SMDPA is approximately 775 milliseconds (ms) compared to about 900 ms for ADB-SMC.