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Shed dinosaur teeth are commonly collected microvertebrate remains that have been used for interpretations of dinosaur feeding behaviors, paleoecology, and population studies. However, such interpretations may be biased by taphonomic processes such as fluvial sorting...

["Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.347

Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply...

["Biodiversity","Ecology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.346

Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained...

["Epidemiology","Global Health","Psychiatry and Psychology","Public Health"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.345

Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Zoology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.344

Background. While often first treated in the emergency department (ED), identification of sepsis is difficult. Electronic medical record (EMR) clinical decision tools offer a novel strategy for identifying patients with sepsis. The objective of this study was to...

["Emergency and Critical Care","Infectious Diseases","Public Health"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.343

Background. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a local anesthetic line block administered before surgery in reducing postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVHX).Methods. This study is a prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical...

["Veterinary Medicine","Anaesthesiology and Pain Management","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.341

In the Central Red Sea, healthy coral reefs meet intense coastal development, but data on the effects of related stressors for reef functioning are lacking. This in situ study therefore investigated the independent and combined effects of simulated overfishing...

["Ecology","Marine Biology","Zoology","Science and Medical Education"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.339

With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study,...

["Biotechnology","Environmental Sciences"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.336

Testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA is increasingly being used for specimen types other than plasma or whole blood. However, few studies have investigated the performance of different nucleic acid extraction protocols in such specimens. In this study, CMV extraction...

["Infectious Diseases","Pathology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.334

Caribbean coral reefs have deteriorated substantially over the past 30 years, which is broadly attributable to the effects of global climate change. In the same time, Indo-Pacific reefs maintain higher coral cover and typically recover rapidly after disturbances....

["Ecology","Marine Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.333

Climate change has led to a decline in the health of corals and coral reefs around the world. Studies have shown that, while some corals can cope with natural and anthropogenic stressors either through resistance mechanisms of coral hosts or through sustainable...

["Ecology","Environmental Sciences","Marine Biology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.327

Therocephalians were a speciose clade of nonmammalian therapsids whose ecological diversity and survivorship of the end-Permian mass extinction offer the potential to investigate the evolution of growth patterns across the clade and their underlying influences...

["Evolutionary Studies","Histology","Paleontology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.325

The Schmidt Sting Pain Index rates the painfulness of 78 Hymenoptera species, using the honey bee as a reference point. However, the question of how sting painfulness varies depending on body location remains unanswered. This study rated the painfulness of honey...

["Entomology","Anaesthesiology and Pain Management"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.338

Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels...

["Psychiatry and Psychology","Human\u2013Computer Interaction"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.337

Leishmania amazonensis is the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an important neglected tropical disease. Once Leishmania amazonensis is inoculated into the human host, promastigotes are exposed to the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermis....

["Cell Biology","Parasitology"]
doi:10.7717/peerj.317

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