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Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier....

["Animal Behavior","Anthropology","Evolutionary Studies","Zoology"]

Introduction. Tissue engineering is a new methodology for addressing meniscal injury or loss. Synovium may be an ideal source of cells for in vitro meniscal fibrocartilage formation, however, favorable in vitro culture conditions for synovium must be established...

["Bioengineering","Veterinary Medicine","Orthopedics","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]

Background. Many families find regular checking of children’s heads for head louse infestation too onerous and would prefer to be able to prevent infestation by use of a topical application that deters lice from infesting the head. Identification in the laboratory...

["Entomology","Parasitology","Epidemiology","Pediatrics","Public Health"]

Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (cas) genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs....

["Evolutionary Studies","Genomics","Microbiology","Infectious Diseases"]

The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal...

["Epidemiology","Global Health","Nutrition"]

Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other...

["Conservation Biology","Ecology","Ecosystem Science","Marine Biology"]

Based on psychophysical evidence about how learning of visuomotor transformation generalizes, it has been suggested that movements are planned on the basis of movement direction and magnitude, i.e., the vector connecting movement origin and targets. This notion...


Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated...

["Animal Behavior","Neuroscience"]

It has been reported that the expression of TMEM65 is regulated by steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA). To date, however, the localization and function of TMEM65 remained unknown. We analyzed the intracellular localization of TMEM65. Immunoblot and immunostaining...

["Biochemistry","Cell Biology"]

Shed dinosaur teeth are commonly collected microvertebrate remains that have been used for interpretations of dinosaur feeding behaviors, paleoecology, and population studies. However, such interpretations may be biased by taphonomic processes such as fluvial sorting...


Aerobic activity levels increase with body temperature across vertebrates. Differences in these levels, from highly active to sedentary, are reflected in their ecology and behavior. Yet, the changes in the cardiovascular system that allow for greater oxygen supply...


Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained...

["Epidemiology","Global Health","Psychiatry and Psychology","Public Health"]

Models of collective animal behaviour frequently make assumptions about the effects of neighbours on the behaviour of focal individuals, but these assumptions are rarely tested. One such set of assumptions is that the switch between active and inactive behaviour...

["Animal Behavior","Ecology","Zoology"]

Background. While often first treated in the emergency department (ED), identification of sepsis is difficult. Electronic medical record (EMR) clinical decision tools offer a novel strategy for identifying patients with sepsis. The objective of this study was to...

["Emergency and Critical Care","Infectious Diseases","Public Health"]

Background. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a local anesthetic line block administered before surgery in reducing postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVHX).Methods. This study is a prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical...

["Veterinary Medicine","Anaesthesiology and Pain Management","Surgery and Surgical Specialties"]

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