If submitting a literature review, bioinformatics/software tool, protein structure, or other non-standard research manuscript then please also review the discipline specific standards.
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PeerJ prefers you spend your time doing science, not formatting references!
Submit your references in whatever style you like.
Just make sure they're full, clear, and consistent.
Smith JL, Jones P, Wang X. 2004. Investigating ecological destruction in the Amazon. Journal of the Amazon Rainforest 112:368-374 DOI: 10.1234/amazon.15886.
Boettiger C. 2013. knitcitations: citations for knitr markdown files. Available at https://github.com/cboettig/knitcitations (accessed 10 July 2012)
Dorch B. 2012. On the Citation Advantage of linking to data. hprints. Available at http://hprints.org/hprints-00714715 (accessed 5 July 2012)
James FY. 2010. Understanding corn and wheat. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith PG. 2011. Behavior in ants. In: Jones HY, ed. Insect behavior in the Andes. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 101–200.
Blair HJ. 1989. Structural modifications of the fern genus Lecanopteris (Polypodiaceae). D. Phil. Thesis, Cambridge University.
Johnson S. 2010. Italian Plants. Available at http://www.italianplants.com (accessed 22 March 2011).
Thomas D, Scharfenecker U, Schiltmeyer B. 2006. Low potential for drug-drug interaction of lacosamide. [Abstract 2.235] Epilepsia 47(Suppl 4): 200.
All tables must be editable. Please do not upload tables as images.
To fit a US Letter page with 2.5cm margins.
Include units in parentheses in column and row headings.
Enter below the table.
Preferred file type
Other file types
pdf (first submission only)
Please use vector images where possible.
There is no minimum resolution for vectors as they do not blur when zoomed in.
Suitable image types
pdf, eps, png
When a program saves an image as a jpeg, bmp or png, they are usually non-vectors.
Because non-vectors blur when zoomed, all your non-vector images must be a minimum size:
Non-vector image types
Preferred file formats
jpg (for photos only)
Please don't include titles or legends in your images.
Image parts labelled alphabetically and submitted as one file.
Remove all whitespace around images.
Upload images in correct orientation. Landscape is preferable in most cases.
Name your figures: Figure1.png Figure2.jpg Figure3.eps etc.
Name your tables: Table2.docx Table2.docx Table3.docx etc.
Charts to have white backgrounds.
Only use patterned charts where necessary to aid communication.
Maintain the highest image quality possible. Minimise re-saves to maximise quality.
Your article is published under a CC BY licence, so any images or content with a more restrictive licence requires permission and/or referencing.
Reference copyright holders in figure legends. View the referencing examples.
3rd Party Photography
Upload a completed photographer's permission letter as a supplementary file.
3rd Party Maps
Google, Yahoo, Bing etc. map images require a reference in the image and legend.
In the image
In the legend
Map data © 2019 Google
For images containing recognisable faces add a permission statement in the note to staff for each person depicted.
You can use this text
I, [NAME OF THE PERSON] give my permission to PeerJ to include an identifiable photograph / video of me in [MANUSCRIPT TITLE] to be published by PeerJ under the CC BY 4 license.
Note that if the person is under the age of 16, consent should be given by a parent or guardian.
docx, doc, odt, rtf
pdf + source files
Use these settings to ensure your review manuscript is generated correctly.
Single-file and preprint submissions:
|Figures||Use the original file format and image size whenever possible.|
(e.g. charts, diagrams):
(e.g. drawings, screenshots):
(minimum: 900 x 900px)
Photo credit: San Diego Zoo Global.
Photo credit: Ali Smith.
Image credit: the MESH archive at http://ondemand.nssl.noaa.gov
3D model credit: Ishmael Kreill
Map data © 2019 Google
|Supplemental Figures||Submit as JPG (use maximum quality settings), EPS (for vector images), or PNG (for lossless images).|
|Supplemental Tables||Submit as PDF, DOC, Excel, RTF or TeX / LaTeX files.|
|Supplemental Articles||Submit as PDF.|
|Supplemental Videos||Submit as AVI, MOV, and MP4 files. For widest compatibility, we suggest authors provide video files as 128 kbit/s AAC audio and 480p H.264 video in an MPEG-4 (mp4) format. Regardless of format submitted, authors should double check that their videos open and play in recent versions of both QuickTime and Windows Media Player.|
|Supplemental Audio||Submit as WAV or MP3 files. Please include a legend. Ensure that the files open and play in common audio players such as iTunes or Windows Media Player.|
|Large Supplemental Data sets||Submit in a compressed format (e.g. zip or tar.gz).|
external reviewsfile type when submitting. They should also provide a document detailing what changes they have made (if any) in light of these reviews. Staff will then contact the other journal to confirm that your reviews are complete and unedited, and to request permission to use them.