My research is mainly focused on vaccine formulation and delivery studies, e.g. to test the protection efficiencies of the currently available prophylactic vaccines in novel formulations and delivered via dermal, nasal, pulmonary, oral, mucosal and intra-lymphatic routes. Physical, chemical and pharmaceutical approaches are being utilized such as microneedle arrays, penetration enhancers, nano drug delivery systems and adjuvants. The induction mechanisms involved in specific vaccine delivery routes and sub-population of immune active cells are also included. The aim is to optimize the vaccine delivery efficiency and simplify vaccination procedure.