Charles Poynton is a Toronto-based independent contractor specializing in the physics, mathematics, and engineering of digital colour imaging systems, including digital video, HD/HDTV/UHD, and digital cinema (D-cinema). He has been an independent contractor since 1995. Prior to that, he worked for many years for Sun Microsystems in California. A Fellow of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), Poynton was awarded the Society's David Sarnoff Gold Medal for his work to integrate video technology with computing and communications. His proposal for 1080 image rows ("square pixels") was adopted in HD standards in 1993. He wrote the book "Digital Video and HD Algorithms and Interfaces."