I graduated from Université Laval in 1995 with a Ph.D. in anthropology. My academic affiliation has since been limited to work for CIERA and the journal Études Inuit Studies. My research has focused on the sex difference in human complexion. In short, women are paler and men ruddier and browner because of differing amounts of hemoglobin and melanin in the skin. I have also been interested in the unusual color scheme of Europeans: their diverse hair and eye colors and their white skin.