Dr Malcolm Clark is a Principal Scientist (Fisheries) at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand. Malcolm began his research career in the 1980s as a fisheries biologist, and worked extensively on stock assessment of deepwater fish (in particular orange roughy) for many years before broadening his research interests to more general deep-sea ecosystems. From the late 1990s he worked on the biodiversity and ecology of New Zealand seamounts, and headed the Census of Marine Life field project on Seamounts, a major 6 year international research programme. His studies have involved a lot of time at sea; with over 70 surveys, including submersible dives, and international work in the Antarctic and southwest Pacific. He has also worked internationally with the FAO to develop guidelines on deep-sea fishing in the high seas, the International Seabed Authority environmental guidelines for deep-sea minerals exploration, and recently the CBD process of identifying Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas. He has published widely, with over 80 peer-reviewed papers, and 100 technical reports and articles. Currently he leads NIWA research projects describing the biodiversity of deep-sea habitats, assessing ecological risk to these habitats and communities from fishing and mining activities, and ways to improve the management of environmental impacts.